History (Medieval)

Pre-History

Very little is known of the pre-historic times of the world of Eshthar, and of that knowledge, the vast majority was unearthed during a very short period of time during the modern era, when the world was not absorbed in warfare. However, historians unanimously believe that at the end of the pre-historic era, the planet was embroiled in a world-wide cataclysm that erased the vast majority of civilization at the time, and possibly, any written history prior to the Diaspora.

Diaspora

The early years of the Diaspora contained the dispersion of the many different races across the world. This is a hotly contested area of history both for present and past historians alike. What little is known of it has been of second-hand accounts, tales passed down by word-of-mouth through generations. While they may clash over the details of the early years, historians agree generally that the two main continents, the Eastern Lands and the Western Lands, were colonised by the Elfin Races and the Races of Men respectively; that the two major races stayed virtually unknown to each other for thousands of years, and that at the end of the Diaspora, there were no longer any Halflings in the world.

The final years of the Diaspora, attested to by ancient Tretallë texts, saw the unearthing of the Ivory Throne and the creation of the Dominion. These years also, according to the High Elves, saw the discovery of the Olynna Trees that became so central in their culture.

Feudal Era

(P.D. 0-3700)

During the Feudal Era, the kingdoms of Men were established in the West. The Dwarves and the Humans lived in mutual indifference and war was typically within the races of Men, and not between them. The Seafolk at the far western side of IldRenn never participated in their petty conflicts, but remained an important part of life in the West all the same. Their exports of fish and seafood helped the kingdoms when winter set in.

A few hundred years into the Feudal Era, the population of dwarves had increased so much that they could not expand their underground halls fast enough to accommodate the new dwarves. As a result, they built the three cliff-cities in the Marble Mountains. However, this was a cause for concern for the humans who saw the surface-dwelling dwarves as a threat to their sovereignty on the surface. Because the humans and the dwarves shared the same territory (the dwarves having dominion upon all that was ten human heights' below the surface), the sudden influx of surface-dwarves created a problem. As dwarves, they were expected to answer to the King of the Mountains, but because they were on the surface, the humans felt that the dwarves should pay them taxes and follow their laws as well, because they were trespassing on the humans' territory.

The War for IlddCaran

The cliff-cities did not like the idea of being taxed twice, and thought that this was oppressive. As a result, they declared secession from the Dwarven Kingdom and declared themselves independent city-states. Neither the humans nor the dwarves were happy with the situation, feeling as though they had been affronted. While the humans and the dwarves went through the discourses of diplomacy, the cliff-dwellers exploded in population and soon more surface-dwarf cities were built. Some of them were even beyond the bounds of the mountains. The three original cliff-cities were independent of each other, and such, war broke out over territory they claimed. The dwarves and humans quite liked the idea and believed that they would all just annihilate each other, but as it turns out, one of the cliff-city-states, IldCaran, managed to overthrow the other two and now held complete sovereignty over all the surface-dwarves. Meanwhile, the dwarves were still expanding their underground holds, as their population continued to expand at a dramatic pace. Population wasn't such a problem for the humans because even though they dramatically outpaced the dwarves in their growth, they also had an easier time building new settlements.

As a result, the dwarves and humans formed an alliance and waged war on the newly emerged kingdom. It didn't last long; the military campaigns lasted for only five years before the capital at IldCaran was captured. Having dominated the fledgling kingdom, and having very little experience with the matter, the humans and dwarves both inadvertently allowed loyalists to go into hiding, waiting for the perfect opportunity to re-establish the realm of IlddCaran. When the dust from the war was settled, the question of which kingdom would have jurisdiction over the lands of IlddCaran remained. Neither side wanted to give any footing to the other, so the whole thing devolved into another tangled mess, with the humans declaring war on the Dwarves.

Fortunately, before the majority of the human realm was involved, the Plague struck, killing a significant portion of the cave-dwelling dwarven population. As a result, the King of the Mountain declared a very unwilling, yet ultimately essential surrender to the human kings. The lands of IlddCaran were then transferred over to the sovereignty of the Human Kings.

The Wars of Unification

While all this chaos was happening in the north, the Kingdoms of the Orcs to the south were consolidating their power. When IldCaran fell, there only remained three of the Orcish Kingdoms, with the others bending knee to the more powerful ones. At the time of the plague, only two still stood. The Kingdom of IldRatth, and the Imperium of IldKairn. Both sovereign rulers were ruthless and powerful, each trying to subjugate the others in what would come to be known in Orcish history as the wars of Unification. Eventually the Imperium won over IldRatth and for the first time in known history, the Orcs were united under the banner of one sovereign ruler.

Ever ambitious, Garrulen, the emperor of the Imperium, set his sights on the abundant lands of the North. Despite the fact that through the years the three races of man traded openly between themselves, Garrulen decided that the treasures of the North were rightly belonging to his people. As a result he led the first army of Orcs north in an open act of war on the Human Kingdoms and the Dwarves that were still recovering from the Plague.

What they did not expect was the heat. Many of the Orcs died from heat strokes during the first campaign, the emperor included. His son Gkarra II succeeded the throne in a controversial accession which involved the death of his older brother as well as the execution of his uncle for treason against the throne. While Garrulen was ruthless and ambitious, his son was more so, but above all cruel and cunning.

The Orcish Wars

Around this time, the wars of succession were happening in the Human Kingdoms, and Irallus Gelenvald the Conqueror King of IldCarr was threatening the other human kingdoms. In exchange for some lands in the warmer North, Gkarra cemented an alliance with Irallus and established cities in the lands he was given. As a token of "gratitude and respect" the Orcish Emperor moved the capital of the Imperium to North, where Orcs then acclimated to the warmer temperature of the land.

Upon the threat of dissolving their alliance, Irallus was forced to agree to cede a portion of the lands he conquered to the Orcs, which led to him being called the Puppet-King, but not before he was able to take the vast majority of the Human lands. Unwilling to concede to the authority of a king that seemed to be at the whim of the Orcs, the remaining human kingdoms and rebel movements across the human lands took up arms against the established government, sparking a civil war as well as the beginning of the Orcish campaigns. The Orcs turned on their human comrades and the first city to fall was Irallus' IldCarr. Fortunately, the king was away, attending to a grain shortage in the western territories of the humans. Irallus' grief was not about to end anytime soon, as insurgents from the old realm of IlddCaran saw the war as an opportunity to demand their lands back.

Peace of the Accord

Unwilling to fight a war on three fronts, Irallus returned the lands of IlddCaran to the surface-dwarves who then appointed the King of the Cliffs as their representative in the West. Desperate and rapidly losing ground, Irallus struck an alliance with the IlddCaran who were, despite past grievances, willing to forgive the humans in exchange for some more lands. Together they cemented the hold of Irallus on the entirety of the human domain and repelled the Orcish invasion, even going so far as to siege the Orcish capital. The whole affair lasted for well over thirty years, but facing defeat at the twilight of the thirty-fourth year, Gkarra called an end to the war. The three factions of the surface realm came together in the now-legendary meeting at the Stone of Viari where the Accords of Irallus were drawn up that cemented the boundaries of the three realms. It also enforced the so-called Peace of the Accord which would call forth swift judgment from the other signatories of the Accord if any one of the three factions broke the peace and tried to take lands from the others.

The cave-dwelling dwarves were not happy with the state of affairs, as they were left out from the Accord, which afforded no protection to their territories. They had amassed an army of significant size and threatened war to the members of the Accord who, believing that they were still significantly weakened, laughed the dwarves in their faces. Affronted, the Dwarves declared war and within seven months, an entire city vanished into a massive cavern, killing the majority of its inhabitants. Still recuperating from the last war, and unwilling to lose more to the King of the Mountain, the three surface-realms saw to it that the Dwarves were entered into the Accord in an amendment that was signed into existence as the Treaty of Winter.

The next few centuries were relatively peaceful, with conflicts again being isolated within their particular realms. The four factions continued their expansion into the centre of the continent with surprisingly little disagreement. When expansion reached the limits of the expansion that were laid down in the Accord, any lands that any kingdom captured beyond the boundary were called the Freelands by virtue of the Obarian Treaty. The Free-cities in these lands belonged to none of the kingdoms, and were compelled to be neutral in any militant activity. Despite the relative harmony of the land at the time, its denizens felt that the peace was inexorably marching on to its end and for good reason. Unbeknownst to them, in the far East, the Tretallë Dominion was gathering its power and slowly conquering lands on the way to the West.

Dominion Era

It was during the reign of Ornnë Gelenvald III that the Tretallë invasion began. In signature Dominion style, the invasion was completely unexpected to the denizens of the land. It can be safely said that the Tretallë were not entirely prepared for the size of the land they were trying to take over, and grossly underestimated the military proficiency of its people.

That being said, the invasion might have been repelled if the human and orcish kingdoms were not undergoing political turmoil at the time. Ornnë Gelenvald III was the first Human King to take an orcish partner, Kidarra whose twin-brother Gador served on his personal guard. Their children would become the centre of a scandalous controversy that would surround both the human and orcish thrones. Kidarra and Gador were the middle-children of the current orcish emperor. Because the two bloodlines converged in the children of Ornnë and Kidarra, they were heirs to both the thrones, much to the chagrin of the peoples of the two kingdoms.

Ornnë Gelenvald III would be considered the final king of the Gelenvald Dynasty, and possibly its weakest king. He preferred parties and the finest of wines to the actual running of his kingdom, letting his bannermen and his council to rule the human kingdom in his stead. His hold on the kingdom was further weakened by the poisonous rumours that he preferred to lie with man as opposed to woman, a deed deeply frowned upon by the Sanctum Faith. Despite the allegations, he managed to have sire three children with Kidarra. Two male, one female. It was on the eve of the seventeeth birthday of their eldest child that the Urallë arrived and began trading with the coastal cities of the human and orcish kingdoms.

News of the strange people from the East who spoke the common tongue and traded vast amounts of riches was quick to reach the capitals but was deemed of little concern. The lower noble families who sought to gain more wealth and by extension influence were quick to send retainers to the coastal cities in order to trade. They returned laden with ivory, gold, silver, precious stones and, more importantly, wines of heavenly vintage. It was at this point that the higher noble families took notice and took it upon themselves to invite the traders inland — the first of many mistakes that would allow the Tretallë to gain a foothold in the West.

Controversy at the Court

With the traders came several noblemen and noblewomen from the outlying territories of the human kingdom. Amongst this number was the noblewoman Irra Thrun from the coastal city of IldSoren. She and her brother Orryn Thrun would become centre of the storm of controversy that would surround the human throne and eventually take the orcish throne as well. At this point, the male children of Ornnë and Kidarra were 19 and 18, a just a few years from being able to formally make a claim to the thrones of the kingdoms. Irra Thrun and her brother were Sylphs and were the best agents of the Urallë flotilla that came to the West.

They swayed Ornnë's court with their tales of abuse from their noble family, and their eventual escape. This prompted outrage from the lords of the court who had been quite smitten by Irra and an initiative to wipe out the Thrun family and crown the two nobles the heads of a new House was put forth. This caught the attention of Ornnë who was in turn immediately smitten with Orryn, much to the chagrin of his secret lover Gador. The initiative was given the Royal Assent and the Thrun nobility were arrested and summarily executed for treason, as much as they protested that they knew no Irra or Orryn. When news of the executions returned to the capital, Irra and Orryn were named lord and lady of the House Thrandin which Ornnë insisted would have estates near the capital.

Throwing all custom to the wind, Ornnë named Orryn to his personal guard, stoking even more jealousy from Gador. Initially, Irra tried to usurp Kidarra as the queen, but it was all in vain as Ornnë was anything but interested in her advances.That was when the Sylphs realised that the king preferred the company of men. For two years, as the Ereiltallë got inevitably closer to the West, Gador and Orryn battled for the affections of Ornnë. As tensions in Ornnë's court escalated, news arrived from the orcish empire that the king had died and that Gador was to immediately return to succeed the throne because his older brother and younger brothers were killed in the same hunting accident that had killed the king. The Sylphs immediately leaped into action and Gador was exposed as a degenerate when Orryn "walked in" on him and the Ornnë in the throes of passion.

The defaced heir apparent was exiled from the orcish empire, but Ornnë, owing to their years as lovers offered him a royal pardon and allowed him to remain in the human kingdoms despite significant opposition from the viarate. However, to save face, Gador was forbidden to ever see the king again. That very night the two met incognito, or so they thought, and Gador bade farewell to the king with a heavy heart. They had one last night of intimacy together, before he left for good. At some point before the dawn, retainers from House Thrandin captured Gador and he would disappear from the face of the earth from that time on.

Succession and the Holy War

With a sexual deviant king at the helm of the human kingdom, and a half-orcish, half-human creature about to take the orcish throne, the Viarate of the Sanctum Faith was understandably livid. They were anything but happy about the current state of affairs, but they had very little true influence in the human and orcish courts. However, paid agents of the Urallë saw this as an opportunity to further destabilise the government of the land, and it wasn't very long until a plan was put in motion to oust Ornnë from his throne. With news of the Faith of the Nine spreading in the coastal lands, the Viarate leapt into action with relentless propaganda against the heretics and denouncing them as worshippers of the Ancient Fiends. Household spies and paid accomplices in the major houses urged their lords to take arms with the Sanctum to fight the Urallë.

Despite the obvious wealth flowing from the strange people from across the sea, the threat of eternal damnation was more than enough to sway some of these lords. Others were staunch in their stand that the Urallë were not doing anything. It was around this time that the Merin via'Nolden King of the Mountain rose to the helm of the underground dwarven people. He was by far the most radical of the dwarven leaders at the time. With his rise to power came a surge in influence and authority of the Viarate. Already debased by the scandal with Gador, and in the face of a church becoming increasingly powerful, King Ornnë decided not to interfere. Soon enough a Holy War was called and Paladins from the dwarven halls bared arms to the Urallë.

Unfortunately, this act caused a political schism between the inland cities and the coastal cities and civil war was brewing yet again. Before the matter could be brought forth to King Ornnë, however, Orryn and Irra decided to put their plan into action. Unfortunately for the poor king who was already distraught from losing one lover, the plan involved getting caught once again in a compromising situation. This time, however, it was not a member of his personal guard nor was it a member of the inner court that caught Ornnë and Orryn in bed together. This time, it was a Viarai whom Irra had managed to convince the King was looking for.

Disgusted, the Viarai promptly left and within a matter of minutes, the news had spread like wildfire. The King was a degenerate! Many of the houses, now under the influence of the Viarate decided to put an end to his "disgusting" reign. The two were placed under house arrest at the Thrandin Estate and under very vigilant watch by paladins who had been paid off by the Sylphs as well. The Houses decided that the Thrandin Estate would be a decent place to put them until the Holy War had been sorted out. After a mysterious and decidedly scandalous "confirmation" that the defaced king's son was not a degenerate like himself, a coronation was declared for the next day.

Much to the dismay of the Houses and the Viarate, after the ceremony and before the festivities could actually finish, news arrived that an enormous fleet had just landed at the eastern coast. The Ereiltallë had finally arrived and all hell would soon break loose.

The Fleet of Bones

Because of growing tensions in the capital and the schism that had grown between the inland and coastal cities, the job of the Ereiltallë was made relatively easier. The coastal cities, knowing the wealth that the invaders brought with them and allured by their strange culture and their religion, had taken on Easter cultures quite easily. As a result, the Ereiltallë was saved the time of constructing a foothold, and they were able to launch into their military campaign of subjugation and conquest almost instantly. This particular armada had five hundred strong Dragon Riders, a fact that would make the conquest of IlddRenn so much easier. A day after the fleet had landed, the dragon riders were dispatched and for a good two hours, the sky was black with the shadow of the mighty beasts as they flew towards the Marble Mountains.

Despite the looming threat, the human kingdoms decided that cementing the throne under Therus Gelenvald Pureheart I was essential to putting together a significant resistance. This was the second of fatal mistakes that allowed the Dominion to sweep across the land with little resistance. The young king turned out to be quite a fanatic of warfare, but was by far not the brightest in the bunch. Orryn Thrandin, disguised as a young squire from House Thrandin managed to worm his way into the king's confidence and convinced the impressionable young king that as ruler, he was entitled to hear and see the plans of his generals.

Grateful to his friend for the advice, Therus demanded to have Orryn sit in with him during tactical meetings. This allowed the Ereiltallë direct access to the plans of the generals, and allowed them to significantly shorten the military campaign. The Viarate had sent its best paladins to the major Sanctum faith centres which happened to be the most populous cities in the human kingdoms' inner domain. The generals reinforced those cities with additional troops but leaving the bulk of the human host in the capital of IldCarr.

Because of their internal knowledge of the plans, the Ereiltallë was able to easily overcome the cities in a spectacular display of military might. Facing destruction, the cities ceded to the authority of the Ivory Throne. Three months into the campaign, the Dwarves had had enough of defeat and their consolidated army, both surface and cave-dwelling, prepared to go to war. Unfortunately for them, the Dragons were a race of burrowing creatures and on the day that the cave-dwarves were about to leave their underground caverns to surprise the Ereiltallë on the surface, the dragons appeared from out of nowhere and wiped out enormous swathes of their army with molten rock and fire.

In the face of utter defeat, the dwarves hung up their hammers and bent the knee to the Ivory Throne. The King of the Mountains Merin via'Nolden was not about to sink to that level, though, and with his personal guard and family retainers, decided to make a last stand. They did not last long. All that was left of the dwarven king was a singed gauntlet and a half-bitten helm. They had been consumed by the largest wyrm in the Armada.

Due to the focus on the northern parts of the realm, the orcish empire was able to consolidate its forces and ferret out spies in its ranks. As a result, the campaign against the orcish king, Therus' brother Irallus Gelenvald Orrik I, went far longer than the four-month campaign against the north. However, the inexorable advance of the Ereiltallë was unstoppable, even by the significant forces of the orcish empire. Facing imminent defeat and significant losses, Irallus Orrik called for a parley and a momentary cessation to the conflict.

The new King of the Mountains, the King of the Cliffs, the Admiral Superior of the Ereiltallë and his brother with respective contingents met at the Stone of Viari, a now-legendary place in IlddRenn. While Irallus Orrik bartered endlessly for the autonomy of the orcish realm, the Admiral Superior was unflinching. The only choices he'd been given were to cede authority to the Ivory Throne or to be ground into the dust. The half-orcish king's pride was hurt, but he was desperate. Therus took him aside and the brothers had a lengthy conversation. In the end Therus managed to convince Irallus that resistance was futile, and that if he loved his family and his unborn son, that he would give in.

And so it was on the Stone that forged the kingdoms into one Western Realm that the kingdoms were destroyed and the Dominion was embraced. At the end of the five-year military campaign, the entire Western Realm belonged to the Ivory Imperator. Orrnë, Gador, and Orryn had been forgotten due to the turmoil, and while House Thrandin was raised to higher influence, the three were never again found. Though rumour has it that the trio was seen boarding a Tretallë ship that then sailed back to the East.

For nigh on three hundred years, the Tretallë would rule over the land uncontested.

Accords Era

Towards the end of the Dominion Era, tensions began to escalate rapidly in the East. A new High-Elven monarch had come into power with a differing philosophy from his predecessors. As the High Elven brethren and the original race of elves according to their mythology, the new monarch Yfaerynnë believed that they held the rights to the land. His coronation was the grandest of recent times and he was incredibly popular amongst the populace. This allowed him to sway the public opinion entirely to his side, spurring the beginning of a lengthy war with the Tretallë.

Yfaerynnë posited that the triple goddess had given the Elledynnë divine authority over the Bone Elves since they were the, as he believed, inferior elven race. Thus, he said, it was unimaginable that such a lower race of creatures would hold dominion over so much of the land. As part of an ancient agreement, the Tretallë and the Elledynnë had mutually agreed that once a territory was captured by one the other would not contest it. Because of the aggressive and ultimately successful military campaigns of the Tretallë they controlled a much larger swathe of land than their High-Elven brethren. Yfaerynnë found this insulting and, determined to make things right in the eyes of the triple goddess, declared war of an unprecedented scale on the Tretallë.

The Battle of Heavens' Bay

The first significant battle of the war occurred at Aveterfiorrë, Heaven's Bay in the common tongue. The battle took place three months after Yfaerynnë's declaration of war on the Dominion. Fortune played on the side of the Elledynnë because there was no current Imperator on the Ifatallë Cilthë and the Council of Ravens bickered in order to appoint a general to head the war council. As a result of the delay, the Elledynnë were able to capture several important island territories around the Eastern Mainland that served as trading posts for the Dominion's supply lines.

While the Elledynnë had the superior naval technology, the Tretallë simply had the superior naval force. Tretallë sovereignty was re-established quickly around the majority of the island territories save for the most significant ones because they always received reinforcement from the High-Elven capital. As a result, the Tretallë resorted to a two-pronged attack. A significant portion of the Third Ereitallë was launched at Heavens' Bay, the primary shipyard for the Elledynnë. Once the fleets surrounding the significant island territories were called back to defend Heavens' Bay the First Ereiltallë moved in to swiftly retake their territories. While the plan was for the First Ereiltallë to support the contingent of the Third, once the Elledynnë caught on to the strategy, they were barred by an Akkyliari blockade.

The sheer magical might of the Akkyliari ships was enough to prevent the First Ereiltallë from moving in to reinforce their brethren at the Bay. The city of Yregyrdi was heavily fortified and it was able to repel the first and second waves of attack from the Ereiltallë. Suffering from unprecedented casualties, the Admiral was forced to unleash his dragons on the city. Though the attack was successful at bringing Yregyrdi to its knees, naval reinforcement from the outer islands had had time to arrive and trap the Ereitallë in the bay. The subsequent battle was fierce and bloody.

Normally, Tretallë ships would not be able to stand their ground against an equal number of Elledynnë Akkyliarin as the barrage of magic would render them unable to retaliate. However, two things allowed the Tretallë to barely win the exchange: the first was that this contingent of the Third Ereiltallë had a disproportionately high number of Trigallarë with it, a conscious choice that the Generals Prime made in order to allow the fleet to attack the city properly. The second was that this part of the Third Ereiltallë also had ships that were shielded with Elledtrillë that allowed them to just barely survive the assault. With a pyrrhic victory in their grasp, the Tretallë left the Bay, limping.

The naval battles may have continued for some time, but with the bulk of the Elledynnë navy rebuilding, the High-Elves would have lost almost assuredly. However, the bulk of the Tretalleri navy was to the North in a new campaign of conquest, one that could not be interrupted unless the heartland was in grave danger. As the Elledynnë expanded their ring of Olynna trees towards the Tretalleri border, the Council decided that it was time for the entire Dominion to be involved in the war. However, much to their chagrin, news returned that due to a winter storm that had unexpectedly crept up on the North, the fleet was stranded.

The Elephants' Siege

With a severely wounded and dismembered military, as a result of the cold winter that had restricted access to the Dominion's other troops, the Tretallë were in for a long and bloody war. For two years, the Tretallë barely managed to keep the Elledynnë out of their lands, but to little effect. With their longer breeding and maturation cycles, the Tretallë were no match for the Elledynnë and their ability to produce and mature offspring at a faster rate, and soon the borders were overrun. The war was far from over, as it still took the Elledynnë an additional three years to encroach upon enough of the Dominion's heartland to pose a threat to the Capital as a result of the scorched earth tactics employed by the retreating Tretalleri armies. In the depths of the heartland, there were enough rations and accommodations for all the refugees from the outer reaches, since the heartland was only sparsely populated.

After three long years, the High Elves had established their Olynna perimeter close enough to the Kevve d'Ifatallë for the siege to begin. For five years, the High Elves laid siege on the Ivory City and were only ever able to inch closer. It wasn't until they brought in the siege elephants that the siege broke and the Dominion surrendered. There was no loot taken, no passing of riches, only land. However, by the pacts of ancient times, neither the High Elves nor the Bone Elves could lay claim to each others' heartlands, and the Dominion gave access of the West to the High Elves, ceding a portion of its lands there to High Elven authority.

Nyvvë Tyrrë

A year later, the High Elven Throne had sent its first wave of colonizers west, and where they landed, they established the first settlement that they called the Nyvvë Tyrrë, New Earth, which they named the capital of the Western Elledynni realm. Despising the High Elves and begrudging them of their victory, the Bone Elves had contrived quite a big political and diplomatic problem for the Elledynni by giving them control of all kingdoms north of the River Iledtur that split the Human Kingdoms cleanly in half. Understandably, the Human King was none too happy that his dominion was to be bifurcated, a problem that the Elledynnë solved by granting the humans back some of their lands, free from the influence of the Tretalleri Dominion. It was more than enough to pacify the human king.

Because all the Orcish and Human kingdoms remained under the Dominion, and the northern humans and Dwarven kingdoms were ceded to the Western Elledynnë, it ushered in an era of unprecedented, but strained peace due to an accord that forbade the sparking of war between the Elven brethren for three hundred years after such a big conflict.

Abilssenna

Enlightenment

The Great Conflict

New Empire Age

The Fall

New Enlightenment

The Industrial Revolution

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